Medicine From The Trenches

Experiences from undergradute, graduate school, medical school, residency and beyond.

The Day to Day Work of Getting Your Schoolwork done.

This is a re-post from some time ago. Since I have been asked by some of my present students about this type of material, I thought a re-post of this might be in order.

“The Thrill of Victory or the Agony of Defeat”

The Drama of Human Competition as the opening lines of ABCs “Wide World of Sports” promised. By now, many students have had their first blocks of exams in medical school. Some people have done very well and some people have “breathed a sigh of relief” that they passed and some people have not passed one or or more of their exams. To fail an exam at this stage can be a huge personal blow but your actions after discovering that you have not passed (I am going to avoid the word “failure” here) are critical to figuring out what you need to do to get “above the yellow line”. Sure you NEED to do a bit or mourning in terms of the loss of those wonderful feelings that infused during orientation week but don’t let the mourning phase go on longer than a couple of minutes. Replace mourning with a very objective strategical look at what might have gone wrong and how you are going to fix the situation.

There is something in medical school that will throw every person. It may be that first round of exams, that USMLE score or a patient contact that just did go well. The important thing is that out of every experience, good or bad, you learn something about yourself and what you are capable of achieving. It is out of experience that you will learn to treat your future patients so let your experience become your teacher and move forward from here. Not passing an exam just doesn’t feel good and can play with your “head” in terms of how your look at your future. My point here is that nothing except that round of exams is over at this point. You mourn a bit and then you push forward because (and I am not wrong on this), the material for the next round of exams is already upon you.

As soon as you know that anything has not gone well for you academically, ask for help. Your first action should be reviewing the test and trying to figure out where you went wrong. Do you need to rely on more detail? Did you move too fast and not answer the question that was asked? Did you neglect to read every answer choice with a more correct answer further down? Did you not fully understand the material? Were you distracted by something outside of school such as a relationship or illness and not put in enough time studying? In short, try to figure out what went wrong and take steps to make sure that you don’t repeat your mistakes.

What if I fail a whole course, like Biochemistry?

The consequences of failing an entire course in medical school are largely school-dependent. Some schools will want you to retake only the material that you did not pass while others will have you go through an entire summer remediation course. In any event, look at your remediation/retesting as an opportunity to hone this material well. You definitely want a strong knowledge base for your upcoming classes and you will have made some steps toward review in terms of preparation for USMLE. In this light, having to retake or remediate is not totally the worst situation that you can find yourself going through.

Plunge into your review with total concentration on the subject at hand. If you have one course or one area of subject matter, this is easier than if you have multiple subjects to remediate. Your only resolve in this situation is to not miss this golden opportunity to thoroughly master this material. You are not a “lesser person” because you need a second review and keep in mind, that you are reviewing at this point. In most cases, you have learned the material on the first shot but this review gives you insight into the material that you likely previously missed.

I am always more concerned about those students who “barely” passed than the students who failed and are re-mediating. In most cases, the student who re-mediates does not carry a knowledge gap forward while the student who barely passed likely has gaps in their knowledge base. It is those who barely pass that will need the most intensive review and preparation for board examinations.  I always encourage students who scored below an 80% to study for and take any optional shelf subject exams if offered by their school. These shelf exams can pinpoint knowledge gaps that can be filled in before taking Step I.

Class Attendance – Is this time well spent for me? 

In some medical schools, class attendance is not mandatory. If this is the case, and you ran out of study time, try figuring out if there is one day a week that you can stay home and study the material using note service/lecture tapes or vids/textbook and syllabus reading. Many students do not attend class and find that home (or away from school study) works best for them. This may work for you but be careful if you have too many distractions at home or find that not attending class puts you behind. (Getting behind in medical school is deadly.)

If your work is not detailed enough, figure out which classes do not require the detail and which ones DO require more detailed study. In short, give each course what it demands. Many schools have integrated courses that definitely demand loads of detailed work coupled with “professional-type” courses like Practice of Medicine that are more performance-based. Try to look at your coursework from this perspective and see if you can give your integrated course a bit more time and your performance course a bit less time.

Another problem is that in many first year courses, the load of information can seem overwhelming. Resist the urge to dwell on what seems overwhelming and nibble away a chunk at a time. I always remember that scene in the movie “Shawshank Redemption” where the protagonist chips away at the prison wall over the course of 17 years with a small rock hammer. Eventually, he gets through the wall and escapes. Extreme but I think you get my drift in terms of divide your work into manageable chunks and stay on course. Keep moving forward because you can only affect what is happening now and use that to impact the future. Weekends are your friend because you can breathe a bit, relax a bit and catch up if you have fallen a bit behind your class. In the middle of the week, go to where the class is and use the weekend to “catch up”.

Wasting time and less efficient practices

I discourage students from recopying notes as a means of study. When you have volumes of material and information, you can become more of an excellent clerk in terms of producing a beautiful set of notes that you have not mastered. Organizing your material is good (can be done with a highlighter or in the margins of your notebook) but total recopying of every word may be too time consuming and not as beneficial as when you were an undergraduate student with less volume. You may need to review the material and then constantly question yourself or recite the material back to yourself rather than a complete recopy. If you can recopy your work in an efficient manner while learning and your grades are good, then recopying is working for you and don’t change your strategy.

Another problem that can interfere with some freshman medical students is feeling that they “need” to study for boards. You don’t need to take time away from your coursework mastery to do board study at this point in your career. If you absolutely feel that you NEED to do some board study, then do it during the summer between your first and second year but the best preparation for boards is to thoroughly master your coursework and then study for boards at the end of your second year. You cannot “review” what you have not “learned” in the first place. Don’t take valuable coursework study time to do board study. Board review books are most useful because they summarize material but most medical school courses require the details and not summaries. Beware of the “I am going to use a review book to summarize” method of study because it might work against you in terms of you not getting enough of the details to pass your course. The other extreme is to attempt to memorize the textbook which is most likely too much detail. In short, strike a happy medium that will work for you.

Don’t be afraid (or ashamed) to consult your instructor or your dean if you are struggling. Not to reach out for help (especially because of the amount of money that you are paying for your school tuition) is not wise. It really looks great to a residency program director to see comments from your dean or professor that state that you were able to overcome a deficiency and excel. These types of comments indicate excellent problem-solving skills which are highly prized in a physician.

Finally, tune out the boasting of your classmates who say that they “didn’t study” and “aced” their exams. They are lying period. You have to do what you NEED to do for yourself. Congratulate them for being so “brilliant” and don’t waste a second of your precious time worrying that you are somehow deficient because you studied like a demon and didn’t do so well. There is nothing wrong with you that correcting your study strategy will not solve. Just don’t add “questioning your worth” to your list of things to overcome. It isn’t necessary and it won’t get the job done.

Striking a Balance

Finally, one key aspect of medical school, residency and the eventual practice of medicine is that you will have to constantly “strike a balance” between study, personal life and professional obligations. The first semester of medical school will definitely test your resolve to keep working away at your studies until you get them mastered but this should not be at the cost of your personal integrity or sanity. Try to find ways of incorporating some stress relief (physical exercise) and socialization (away from your classmates) into your life. Nothing, including the practice of medicine is one-dimensional and there needs to be balance.

For example, if you are studying in the library and know that you won’t make it to the gym, try to walk up at least 8 floors of steps on the days that you don’t get to the gym. Take 10 minutes and take a brisk walk around the corridors to get your brain relaxed before you keep “grinding” away at your study materials. Study and pace at the same time while reciting the material to yourself in your own words. Try making some study-drill tapes and drill yourself while you are on the elliptical trainer/treadmill in the gym. Finally, picture that professor’s head when you are doing your bicep curls or on the fly machine and pound things out. You will be more relaxed, less stressed and more efficient in your studies. In addition, you can enjoy eating without worrying about gaining weight.

Statistics (and odds) state that if you were accepted to medical school, you will get through the four years successfully. Some people make the adjustment to the rigors of medical school academics faster than others but trust yourself enough to know that you will get the job done. There is very little difference in intellect between the person who graduates first in their medical school class and last in their medical school class. Residency program directors know this which is why the person who graduates last in their class is still called “Doctor”. Run your own race and get what you need.

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19 January, 2011 Posted by | academics, medical school coursework, study skills, success in medical school | 2 Comments

I can’t (and maybe don’t want to) get into medical school

Medical school has been the ultimate dream profession for many people (or their parents) for many years. In some cultures in this country, only four professions exist; medicine, law, dentistry and engineering. If a person didn’t get into one of those professions, then they were seen as a professional failure in the eyes of their parents. For some unfortunate students, not only are they not going to enter one of those professions, they are not interested in the subject matter or practice of one of those four professions. Almost weekly, a parent will enter my office stating that they will “disown” their child if I don’t “let” them into medical school. Many of these students  will say that they have little interest in the sciences (unacceptable to the parents who are paying tuition bills) and even less interest in medicine. When questioned closely, many of these undergraduates will reveal that their parents would never “allow” them to seek other professions and that medical school is the only choice.

In today’s climate of grade inflation and very high tuition costs, the sheer magnitude of maintaining the medical school  matriculant average undergraduate GPA of  3.7 is a burden that many are not able to carry. For some students, a very poor freshman year can mean the end of being able to get that uGPA into the average range let alone a competitive range. For others who might enter university poorly prepared in math and science because of attendance in a poor secondary school, getting their academics off to a strong start and keeping them there may be problematic. Along those lines, I encountered a young Latina woman who was valedictorian of her secondary school class (inner city). While she had maintained a very strong academic record at her secondary school, the quality of instruction was extremely poor.She would be the first in her family of very hard-working immigrants whose dream was for her to become a physician so that she could come back to the neighborhood for practice. This was a huge burden for this young lady who was determined not to let her family down.  She came to our university will poor study skills, poor reading skills and deficient math skills. He school had no IB or AP courses and offered few academic courses that would prepare her for becoming a biology major in preparation for medical school.

During her first semester, she proceeded to achieve a 2.0 GPA which lead to much discouragement and frustration. When she came to my office for assistance (she was in danger of losing her full-ride scholarship), I immediately contacted the school administration to allow her to shore up her academic skills before proceeding to lose her scholarship. She had determination and discipline but lacked guidance in being able to navigate the academic world (common in many students who are the first to enter higher education). She was allowed to spend the next semester working on basic writing, reading and math skills. Fortunately, she has and always had very strong problem-solving skills which is why she sought assistance when her performance was working in the first place. While she hadn’t failed any courses, those “C” grades would not be enough for medical school.

In the next semester, she excelled in her academic remediation. She was able to make great strides and shore up her deficiencies. She learned to put her drive and determination into her studies but she also learned that she was not particularly interested in science and math. Over the course of the remediation semester and summer, she became interested in psychology which she pursued with vigor over the next fall semester earning a 4.0 GPA for that semester. Her reading and writing skills were excellent along with a very strong interest in studying her population in terms of achievement. In short, her interests lay not in medicine but in helping her community and those in her community to be able to achieve in the academic world. She went on to earn a degree in psychology and entered graduate school to earn a Ph.D in psychology. While her family was not happy, she continues to research, study and write articles which have been the cornerstone for closing the gap in Latino achievement in academia. Her most recent achievement was tenure in her department at the state university where she teaches. In short, if medical school is not your dream, all of the drive and push from your parents and family will not provide what you need to get into medical school and practice well in medicine.

Another undergraduate student had come from a family where his mother and father were both physicians. He freshman and sophomore years had ended up netting a uGPA of 2.5. He loved the university life and spent many hours with his fraternity brothers working on extracurricular activities. His father brought him to my office so that I could “talk some sense into him” before he destroyed his future. After a tumultuous weekend with his parents, this student returned to my office resigned to “dig in” and get his work done. As we calculated what he would need to do in order to raise that uGPA, he said that he just didn’t have that kind of  drive.  He said that he would “do his best” because he didn’t want to let his parents down. He said that it didn’t help that his brother was in medical school and was very critical of his undergraduate performance.

Over the next couple of semesters, his academic performance improved but not enough for him to get his cumulative uGPA above 3.2. He became more and more discouraged. At one meeting, he expressed interest in looking at other careers besides medicine. He decided that he would look into becoming a physician assistant which didn’t take as long but would enable him to have a career in health care. While his family wasn’t pleased with his choice, after making the decision not to pursue medicine, he was better grounded and had more direction. He finished his undergraduate degree in biology with a cumulative GPA of 3.5 and entered a masters program in physician assistant studies. Today, he loves his job and loves that he can travel while practicing his craft.

I do not advocate trying to become a physician assistant because you can’t get into medical school but it is a profession that is worth exploring if you have a strong interest in the practice of medicine but can’t spend the minimum of 7 years above undergraduate school in order to enter the profession of medicine. In terms of love of their work, physician assistants have the highest job satisfaction in healthcare and earn a very strong salary which is quite appealing for people who have families whose needs won’t allow an additional four years out of the workforce. In terms of academics, the same strong academic skills in reading, writing and math are needed by a PA that would be needed by a physician. I would also caution that the academic achievement to become a physician assistant is just a bit lower than what is needed for medical school with the average uGPA of the PA class that entered our state university being 3.6. In short, getting into PA school isn’t that much easier than medical school but the training is shorter which is appealing to many people who have an interest in medicine but do not want the long training period.

Other careers worth looking at are anesthesia assistant which is a physician assistant who does anesthesia and perfusionist. The training programs for this profession are quite competitive but as with PA, the job satisfaction is very high. Anesthesia assistants work with anesthesiologists and provide anesthesia care in a variety of settings. This particular profession seems to attract people who have no interest in nursing and going the CRNA route but have a strong interest in working the operating room environment with anesthesia.  The perfusionist runs the heart-lung machine (and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenator ECMO) which is used during cardiac surgeries such as coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement. If ECMO is used in a nursery, it is the perfusionist that maintains that machine too. Perfusion technologists earn a very high salary and enjoy very good job security. There are a limited number of perfusion technology schools (and training slots) in this country but for many people who find that medicine is not for them, perfusion technology can be a very good healthcare profession.

For the undergraduate who has applied to medical school more than twice, the chances of getting into medical school will not increase and are likely to decrease. Just reapplying is not enough to achieve admission as whatever kept you out in the first place has to be corrected and upgraded.  Every year, the medical school matriculant average goes up along with the matriculant average score for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT).  To continue trying to raise an otherwise undistinguished uGPA (graduate doesn’t count) with one class here and there is a long and expensive process. One poor year as an undergraduate can be overcome but multiple drops and repeats of the pre-med courses (especially organic chemistry, calculus and general physics) do not bode well for medical school admission success. There are just too many medical school applicants out there who have completed their studies without drops and repeats. There are also many applicants who have very competitive uGPA/MCAT scores who will be admitted ahead of those who have  a less distinguished record. No amount of research or extra curricular activities will off set a poor uGPA; nor will a high MCAT score do the same. In short, the admission process into medical school is long, unforgiving and quite expensive with little guarantee of success in any given year.

Multiple retakes of the MCAT with final scores less than 30 are going to be problematic for many who desire to enter medical school. One retake of the MCAT if you were ill (or severely distracted) is warranted but several mediocre scores with no or a 1 point improvement will no work will. Not releasing scores on more than one retake with mediocre scores is not a sound practice either. Students who have a less-than-distinguished academic record can’t expect to “ace” the MCAT and get into medical school. This is why it takes both strong academic achievement and a strong MCAT in order to achieve admission success. Medical schools want to accept students who show evidence (by undergraduate achievement and scores on the MCAT) that they are able to master a very competitive curriculum. It is far from a certainly that once you are accepted into medical school, that graduation will happen. In short, medical school is a very strong academic challenge that many of the strongest students find daunting at first. It takes a consistent and high level of scholarship to achieve the performance in medical school that is needed to become a physician. Also keep in mind that USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Exam) steps are not retaken which means that multiple retakes of exams such as the MCAT do not bode well for USMLE success.

If you find that you are not successful in gaining admission into medical school, you need to do an objective and thorough inventory of why your application didn’t work. After your inventory, you need to figure out how and what you can upgrade that will ensure successful admission. If you are on a waitlist, I strongly advise getting the application together for reapplication for the next year as soon as possible with updates and reworking of things such as your personal statement. In the intervening time, upgrade anything that is within your power to upgrade and apply early (exceed every deadline). If you didn’t get any interviews or waitlist, then your application need a thorough upgrade (might take more than one year). If you can’t upgrade your uGPA (t0 a competitive range) significantly in one or two years, you likely either need to look into a Special Masters Program for credential enhancement (if you enter one of these you need to do well) or look into another profession. Getting a Masters of Public Health (MPH) isn’t going to offset a poor uGPA or MCAT nor is entering a Ph.D program as most medical schools require that you complete any graduate work that you start.

6 January, 2011 Posted by | application, can't get into medical school, medical school, medical school admissions | 1 Comment

Study Skills Part V

Introduction

This is the fifth part of a series that I have been working on since starting this blog. From time to time, I will keep adding to this material as much as possible. For this installment, I want to “get into your head”  for you to get the best results of your work. Previously, I have discussed things like taking notes and organization. You need to keep your studies as organized as possible. If you are working and trying to attend school, your organization skills have to be outstanding.

Adjust your thinking for best results

As you move into the next semester (or next class /group of classes),  start  working on getting your thought patterns together. There is no class taught at any university or college that cannot be mastered by any student who is willing to put in the time needed to master the material presented. As I have stated in other posts about study skills, consistent and regular study will get the best results for most students. It is extremely rare for an individual to be able to sit down the night before and exam and expect to master everything that is up for testing. If your fellow classmates are telling you that the “last-minute cram” gets the best results for them (“I always get an A when I only look at the material the night before the test.”), they are likely lying to you about the time that they are putting in. For some people, lying about the amount of time needed for study allows them to believe that they have a superior mind over the rest of us. Congratulate them and keep to your plan to get your work mastered. What another student does (or does not do) is meaningless in terms of what  you need to do for complete mastery of your studies. Keep in your thoughts that the “superior mind” is the one that get the best results period and retains the information over the long term not the last minute crammer who loses the knowledge because it is never in their long term memory.

Rate My Professor and other review sites

Going to sites like “Rate My Professor” might seem like a great idea but remember that most people who post to those “review” sites tend to be the folks who had problems in courses.  Not all of the problems that a student might have is due to the professor. Most professors do not gain “academic points” for making sure that most of the students in their courses earn grades of C or less.  Most professors do not gain “academic points” for making sure that most of the students earn grades of A either. In terms of teaching, the professor is most likely the most redundant element in your learning experience. A professor should know their subject matter and be able to point students in the right direction for the student to earn their best grade. It is counter-productive to learning at the college level, to expect that your professor is your sole resource in any subject matter. While your professor should be able to help you navigate a subject, you need to have the confidence that even if the professor wasn’t there, you could master the subject material. In short, don’t attempt to develop any personal reactions to or concerning your professor. Utilize a professor for what they do best which is, being a good resource for things about a subject that you, the student, might need. A professor doesn’t care if you “like them” or you “don’t like them”. Since most professors are tenured, a student’s likes or dislikes do not figure in the learning equation one way or another.

Since the professor is essentially a redundant element in your learning; this means that your actual “learning” isfar more dependent upon you being able to incorporate the information into your knowledege base so that you may be able to utilize it. The professor, while being a resource, it not your sole resource or the ultimate resource that will enable you to make the most of a class. If you anticipate application to professional school such as medicine or dentistry, you have to master the building of a solid knowledge base that you can tap for the situations that will present for  you in the future such as your Medical College Admissions Test or the Dental Admissions test where you will be asked to apply your knowledge base to any of a variety of problem situations. Being able to problem-solve is a characteristic of an individual and not of any one particular professor or school for that matter. Learn to garner as much knowledge as you can in any particular class with the realization that any professor can provide what you need.

“Weed-out Courses”

I don’t know how many times I have head the phrase, Physical Chemistry is the “weed-out” course for a chemistry major or Organic Chemistry is the “weed-out” course for a pre-med student. I have taken both of these courses and frankly, found Physical Chemistry more enjoyable than Organic Chemistry but both were the subject matter of my major which I mastered throughly. I refused to give any course, or subject matter, more deference then it deserved. Physical Chemistry was a great course that allowed me to use my math tools to describe the physical aspects of chemistry and chemical reactions. Organic Chemistry was a course that taught me much about developing synthetic themes and the mastery of carbon-based chemistry (useful for understanding Pharmacology). Since I took these courses as a sophomore in university, I just packed the knowledge from these two courses into my chemistry knowledge base.

As people around me spent hours lamenting how “rough” these two courses would be, I spent most of my time figuring out the best strategy to do well in these courses because I needed the information presented there. There was only one section of Physical Chemistry at my university that was taught by two professors fall and spring semester. In short, I didn’t have a choice in terms of  professor “shopping” if I wanted to take this course. I did make sure that I had the math background for mastery of the Physical Chemistry course material (I was taking Applied Differential Equations at the same time) and I did make sure that I thoroughly mastered the material presented both in problem-solving and in lecture. In the end, Physical Chemistry was a very enjoyable course that allowed me to apply physics to chemistry and solve problems. The course took plenty of time, especially the lab write-ups, but the course challenged me on many levels which was great. In short, don’t have any preconceived notions that a course is going to be “so hard” that you can’t perform well. If you keep telling yourself that the course is too difficult, the course will become too difficult.

Your Less than Helpful Classmates

Interaction with your classmate can be intellectually stimulating and provide an important and crucial means to solidifying your mastery of a course especially the science courses. While a great interaction experience is wonderful, in reality, you will encouter classmates (lab partners) who will be happy to allow you to do a bulk of the work while they receive an equal share of the grade for a collaborative project. You, will have to master the skills necessary to get the most out of the project and your less than “helpful” classmate. First of all, you grade depends on your finding a balance that will enable you to get the strongest grade. If your grade is important to you, then you do what is necessary and worry about the “sharing” of project duties later. This means that when you encounter a partner who isn’t will to pull an equal share, you don’t have all semester to try to “cajole” this person into being a good partner. Sometimes, you have to deal with the “hand” or in this case, the “partner” as best you can so that your work doesn’t suffer. Don’t let resentment for your partner’s lack of participation cause you not to get the best grade possible. In short, sometimes you have to “take up the slack” and do what you know will provide the best grade. It’s not “fair” but it get the job done. Just don’t let yourself be partnered with the “slacker” under any other circumstances. You can also state clearly why you won’t work with that person again unless there are no alternatives.

It’s always important for you to keep your grade and work in the forefront of you efforts. I will state over and over for emphasis, “what another student does or does not do is meaningless in terms of your grade.” In short, you have to look out for yourself and keep your work at the highest level. As a professor, when I assign group projects, it’s very easy for me to see who is the leader, the follower(s) and the slacker(s). Most people do not change their style over the course of one project or one semester. As an educator, I also make sure that every person in a group project is not so dependent on the others in the group that one person who has worked strong and hard ends up “making up for” or “carrying” the slackers. Again, keep your work ethic and don’t worry about others unless they are impeding your progress to the point that you can’t learn. Under that situation, you need to write down specific instances of the impedements and present them to the professor after you have presented them to the person who is impeding you. Some people are so self-absorbed, that they don’t realize they are not pulling their share or that they have become a weak link in an otherwise strong group.

Group Study

Having a study group is a great strategy for both undergraduate or professional school. Some things that make group study efficient are the following:

  • Keep the group to 4 or less people. Large groups become unmanagable. If you want to collaborate with another study group of 4 or less, then do so but keep your primary group small.
  • Have a study plan (agenda)  for the amount of time that you will spend together. This should be no more than one week’s worth of materials.  Don’t try to do a whole test’s worth of review in one study group meeting. It’s counter productive to full mastery.
  • Do your individual study before you work with a group. While other folks can give you a different insight, they can’t be the sole source of your learning.
  • Get away from school if possible. A Starbuck Coffee Shop meeting or group study room in the library is good so that other folks in the class won’t disturb your group study.
  • Distractions and interruptions abound when you and the group have an exam in the near future. Try to find a method of keeping the socialization to a minimum while keeping the study to a maximum. Sometimes having one person write down a summary of a discussion or questions that the group can’t answer is a good strategy for getting back on track.
  • If you get hungry/thirsty and you find that the group is getting “off track”, stop while you refresh so that you can get back to working more efficiently. Sometimes, walking around the room or getting a drink can help to clear your mind.
  • If you are having trouble with some of the material, get your questions stated and answered before you meet with your group. If some of your group members have a stronger grasp of the material than yourself, don’t worry about it. This is why group study works well.

Finally, remember that you are the ultimate person who is in charge of your learning. Your coursework is your job and you want to be the ultimate professional on the job at hand. When you sit down to study, give it your best effort. If you are tired and distracted, try to get rid of the distractions, rest a bit and then move to your studies. I can tell you that as a medical student, resident and practicing physician, I had and have to study when I am sick, tired and distracted. I have learned to hone in on what I need to master while tuning out the rest. Learn to master study when you are tired and learn to refresh yourself often. Sometimes your brain just needs a break which means that you divide your study periods into shorter bursts rather than one long session if you are tired.

4 January, 2011 Posted by | academics, medical school, study skills | 5 Comments